Breaking with predecessors, Biden declares mass killings of Armenians a genocide
By Katie Rogers and Carlotta Gall
WASHINGTON — President Joe Biden on Saturday (24) recognized the mass killings of Armenians more than a century ago as genocide, signalling a willingness to test an increasingly frayed relationship with Turkey, long a key regional ally and an important partner within NATO.
“Each year on this day, we remember the lives of all those who died in the Ottoman-era Armenian genocide and recommit ourselves to preventing such an atrocity from ever again occurring,” Biden said in a statement issued on the 106th anniversary of the beginning of a brutal campaign by the former Ottoman Empire that killed 1.5 million people. “And we remember so that we remain ever vigilant against the corrosive influence of hate in all its forms.”
The declaration by Biden reflected his administration’s commitment to human rights, a pillar of its foreign policy. It is also a break from Biden’s predecessors, who were reluctant to anger a country of strategic importance and were wary of driving its leadership toward US adversaries like Russia or Iran.
The Turkish government, as well as human rights activists and ethnic Armenians, gave a muted response to the news, which was leaked days in advance, describing the move as largely symbolic. Later Saturday, the country’s foreign minister summoned the US ambassador to protest the declaration, State media reported.
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who has repeatedly denied that the killings amounted to genocide, had lobbied hard to prevent the announcement, mounting a conference and media campaigns before the anniversary Saturday.
But in a call Friday (23), Biden told Erdogan directly that he would be declaring the massacre an act of genocide, according to a person familiar with the discussion who spoke on the condition of anonymity to disclose details of the conversation.
A summary of the call provided by the White House said only that the pair had agreed to an “effective management of disagreements.” The Turkish presidency said in a statement that both leaders agreed on the “importance of working together.” They are scheduled to meet at a summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in June.
In his statement Saturday, Biden acknowledged the Armenians who were forced to rebuild their lives.
“We affirm the history,” he said. “We do this not to cast blame but to ensure that what happened is never repeated.”
Since taking office, Biden has kept Erdogan at a distance, calling other world leaders — and leaving his Turkish counterpart, who enjoyed a friendly relationship with President Donald Trump, waiting for months.
After news broke recently of the impending announcement, Erdogan said in a statement that Turkey would “defend the truth against the lie of the so-called ‘Armenian genocide.’”
Erdogan is widely expected to use the designation to whip up support at home, where he has increasingly adopted a nationalist-Islamist stance to retain his voter base. But political analysts said he was likely to tread carefully with the United States.
Erdogan sees Turkey, a country of 80 million and a member of the Group of 20, as a regional power that deserves greater respect on the world stage. That view has fuelled a greater geopolitical assertiveness demonstrated in military interventions in Syria, Libya, Iraq and Azerbaijan and in exploration for energy in contested waters in the eastern Mediterranean last year.
European leaders and members of the Biden administration advocate continued engagement with Erdogan’s government because Turkey houses millions of Syrian refugees who might otherwise head to Europe. They also point to Turkey’s support for Ukraine and Afghanistan, where it will maintain a small force to train Afghan army and police personnel as the United States and other coalition troops withdraw by Sept. 11.
The White House’s sustained silence toward Erdogan had been seen as a sign that Biden did not view Turkey as a priority and intended to manage the relationship at lower levels of the administration.
“They don’t want to have a conflict with him, but they don’t want to be too cozy with him either,” said Ozgur Unluhisarcikli, director of the Ankara office of the German Marshall Fund of the United States.
Erdogan also would not seek to further damage relations over the genocide designation, said Asli Aydintasbas, a senior fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations. By one count, at least 29 other countries have taken similar steps.
“In the past, Turkey used to issue all types of threats, but lately the policy toward genocide recognition from allies has been to shrug it off,” she said. “They will issue denouncements, but not go so far as to create a crisis.”
Unluhisarcikli, like other analysts and human rights defenders, questioned the timing and purpose of the announcement.
“The Turkish government will feel obliged to respond in ways that are consequential for the US and for US -Turkey relationship,” he said.
The Turkish public will see it as evidence of American double standards, and anti-Western forces in Turkey will use it to incite fury, he said.
Both opposition and pro-government leaders attacked the expected designation.
“This is an improper, unfair stance,” said Kemal Kilicdaroglu, the leader of the largest opposition party, the Republican People’s Party.
Dogu Perincek, the leader of the ultranationalist Patriotic Party, in an open letter to Biden, questioned his authority to issue such a declaration. “As is known, the genocide against the Jews was adjudicated at an authorized court,” he wrote, “but regarding the 1915 incidents, there is no judicial ruling.”
The killings of Armenians occurred at the end of World War I during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the predecessor of modern Turkey. Worried that the Christian Armenian population would align with Russia, a primary enemy of the Ottoman Turks, officials ordered mass deportations in what many historians consider the first genocide of the 20th century: Nearly 1.5 million Armenians were killed, some in massacres by soldiers and the police, others in forced exoduses to the Syrian desert that left them starved to death.
Turkey has acknowledged that widespread atrocities occurred during that period, but its leaders have adamantly denied that the killings were genocide.
-New York Times